Torsion Field Detectors

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Taylor J. Smith wrote:

I am interested in factors that affect G, the universal constant of gravitation. Kozyrev's work seems to bear on this question, and I would appreciate discussion of this.

NTC COM-Center wrote:

In the 50's, in order to verify his theory, N.A.Kozyrev conducted a series of experiments with gyroscopes. He found that the weight of a spinning gyroscope depends upon its angular velocity and direction of rotation. ...

Note that N.A.Kozyrev emphasized that spinning gyroscope should be subjected to the special vibrations in order to observe its weight variations. In the absence of vibrations the weight of a spinning gyroscope would not change. Thus to achieve the weight variation the rotation should be nonstationary.

From: "Kedrick Brown"
Subject: Torsion Fields and Podkletnov's effect
Date: Wed, 3 Mar 1999 20:17:24 -0500

Terry Blanton posted on 2/12:

"Indeed! One must also wonder if the results obtained by Podkletnov,Schnurer, et. al. are due to the "synchronization" of the torsion fields of the lattice ions as they orbit/spin about the latticenodes."

Kedrick Brown wrote:

Barnett's effect means that the quantum particles in any spinning macroscopic object are going to be spin polarized by that object's rotation (Barnett's effect is a fundamental inertial effect). So this definitely should occur in a spinning superconductor (i.e. the lattice ions should be spin-polarized to a degree). However there are many other things about Podkletnov's effect that are kind of puzzling, such as

1) No anomalous gravitational effects observed under the superconductor

2) Cylindrical shape of the gravitational shielding cylinder

This seems to suggest that IF Podkletnov's effect is real, that the superconductor MAY have emitted gravitational radiation from its upper face (as opposed to shielding the earth's gravitational field through a complicated quantum process), similar to what Fontana has suggested:


In fact, Wallace details in US Pat# 3626605 how gravitational radiation can be used to create localized zones of reduced gravity!

Wallace's patents had previously show that changing spin-polarization of lattice ions in a material is capable of producing gravitational radiation. So there definitely seems to be a connection between torsion fields and gravity.

... Wallace outlines a very simple scientific method of observing the "kinemassic" (torsion) field in US Pat# 3626606. It involves the use of two semiconductor probes ("a differential magnetic probe for an FW Bell gaussmeter," as he puts it - which conventionally "provide a measure of magnetic field intensity from both AC and DC sources, via the Hall effect").

The important thing is that these probes are polarity sensitive with respect to magnetic field readings but NOT polarity sensitive with respect to the direction of crystal lattic vibrations, which means that you can use a voltage developed across them to sense their extent of nuclear spin-polarization (without having to worry about magnetic fields influencing your results - see his patent!!!).

THIS I THINK IS AN OPTIMUM METHOD FOR MEASURING THE PRESENCE OF TORSION FIELDS - simply measure the extent of lattice vibrations in such probes. What do you all think?

Tim Vaughan wrote:

It seems like it might work better with a large hall effect crystal. How could one make and employ such a crystal as a torsion detector ?


Preprint Fontana Paper

A possibility of emission of high frequency gravitational radiation from d-wave to s-wave type superconductor junctions.

by Giorgio Fontana

Faculty of Science, University of Trento, 38050 Povo, TN, Italy.

... The observed effects were attributed to a possible gravitational shielding; this hypothesis is not corroborated by any currently accepted theory or other supporting experiments, nor the observed region of "interaction", which has exactly the shape of the superconducting disk or toroid for distances of many disk diameters from the device surface, is compatible with a static field modification. On the contrary it is compatible with a beam of millimetric or submillimetric gravitational radiation generated by the decay of Cooper-pairs. The emission is orthogonal to the plane of the junction where small domains should have emitted coherent and thus beamed gravitational radiation,

... It has been already shown that gravitational radiation may transfer energy and momentum (10), because of that, the repulsive effect observed in (8) (9) could be a straightforward consequence of this property of gravitational radiation. ...

Giorgio Fontana


  1. Prima Facie Questions in Quantum Gravity (lecture), C. J. Isham, gr-qc/9310031 22 Oct 1993 preprint.
  2. On the Gravitational Radiation of Microscopic Systems, Leopold Halpern, B. Laurent, IL NUOVO CIMENTO Vol. XXXIII, N. 3, 728, 1964.
  3. On the stimulated photon-graviton conversion by an electromagnetic field, L. Halpern, B. Jouvet, Annales H. Poincare, Vol. VIII, NA1, p 25, 1968.
  4. Phase-sensitive tests of the symmetry of the pairing state in high-temperature superconductors-Evidence for d symmetry, D.J. Harlingen, Reviews of Modern Physics, Vol. 67 No. 2, 515, 1995.
  5. c-axis Josephson Tunneling between YBa2Cu3O7-x and Pb: Direct Evidence for Mixed Order Parameter Symmetry in a High Tc Superconductor, K.A. Kouznetsov et al., PHYSICAL REVIEW LETTERS, 3050, 20 Oct. 1997.
  6. Unusual paramagnetic phenomena in granular high-temperature superconductors-A consequence of d-wave pairing ?, M. Sigrist and T.M. Rice, , Reviews of Modern Physics, Vol. 67 No. 2, 503, 1995.
  7. Angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy study of the superconducting gap anisotropy in Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+x. , H. Ding et al. , PHISICAL REVIEW B Vol. 54, N. 14, 54, 1 Oct. 1996-II
  8. A possibility of gravitational force shielding by bulk YBa2Cu3O7-x superconductor., E. Podklentov and R. Nieminen, PHYSICA C, 203 (1992) 441-444.
  9. Weak gravitational shielding properties of composite bulk YBa2Cu3O7-x superconductor below 70 K under e.m. field., E. Podkletnov, MSU-chem 95 – cond-mat/9701074 5 Feb 1997 preprint.
  10. The gravitational wave rocket, W. B. Bonnor and M. S. Piper, Class. Quantum Grav. 14 (1997) 2895-2904.

Hi all,

So again we return to the question of "Is gravity a push or a pull?" I guess the math come out the same either way.

Jack Smith

From: "Kedrick Brown"
Subject: Re: Torsion fields and The Wallace Patents
Date: Sun, 7 Mar 1999 12:26:24 -0500

Hi all:

Just wanted to thank Colin Quinney publicly for his mention (in a private communication) of the connection between spin-fields and heat, which I referred to in my last email. He suggested use of a temperature probe for detecting spin-fields. Basically, the last few spin-field detection methods we have discussed are actually forms of temperature probes.

According to Wallace, application of a spin field to a substance both reduces the specific heat of that substance and increases its electrical conductivity (i.e. lowers its resistance). So a resistor should be adequate for detecting spin fields. Note that resistance thermometers already exist for temperature (as opposed to spin field) measurement purposes (their resistance varies with temperature in a known curve).

Also of course, the InAs Hall effect probe that Wallace used was a form of temperature probe, as my last post showed. The 11 degree centigrade reduction in probe temperature that he observed is huge!

Perhaps also a thermocouple connected to a sample of appropriate material would be useful. Wallace mentions in 3626606 that a thermocouple is not measurably affected by spin-fields, so it might be good for monitoring the temperature of a substance that is.


Date: Sun, 07 Mar 1999 15:18:12 +0000
From: "Taylor J. Smith"
Subject: Re: torsion field detectors

NTC COM-Center wrote:

Note that N.A.Kozyrev emphasized that spinning gyroscope should be subjected to the special vibrations in order to observe its weight variations. In the absence of vibrations the weight of a spinning gyroscope would not change.

Dan Ghiocel wrote:

Do you have any details, description, or experimental results regarding this "special" vibrations? ...

Regards, Dan Ghiocel,

Hi Dan,

The following are some excerpts from

"Possibility Of Experimental Study Of Properties Of Time" [Unpublished article by N. A. Kozyrev: English title as above; Pulkovo, "O VOZMOZHNOSTI EKSPERIMENTAL'NGO ISSLEDOVANIYA SVOYSTV VREMENI", Russian, September 1967, pp 1-49]

... However was noted that in the transmission of the vibrations from the gyroscope to the support of the weights variations in the readings of the weights can appear, depending on the velocity and direction of rotation of the gyroscopes.... From these observations, a series of tests with these gyroscopes developed. ...

The support areas in the form of caps are also convenient by virtue of the fact that with them we can conduct the suspension of gyroscopes rotating by inertia. A gyroscope suspended on a rigid support can transmit through a yoke its vibrations to support of the weights. With a certain type of vibration, which was chosen completely by feel, there occurred a considerable decrease in the effect of the gyroscope upon the weights during its rotation in a counter - clockwise direction, if we examined it from above. During rotation in a clockwise direction, under the same conditions, the readings of the weights remained practically unchanged.

Measurements conducted with gyroscopes of varying weight and rotor radius, at various angular velocities, indicated that a reduction in the weight ... is actually proportional to the weight and to the linear rate of rotation. For example, at a rotation of the gyroscope (D = 4.6 cm, Q = 90 gr, u = 25 m/sec), we obtained the weight difference Q = -8 mg. With rotation in a clockwise direction, it always turned out that Q = 0. However, with a horizontal arrangement of the axis, in azimuth, we found the average value Q = -4 mg.

From this, we can conclude that any vibrating body under the conditions of these experiments should indicate a reduction in weight. ...

Terry Blanton wrote:

If I am not mistaken, Schnurer witnessed AG effects *without* spinning the disk. This implies that the ions orbiting their lattice nodes alone is capable of generating a gravity field once the phonons are minimized. This effect would be maximized at absolute zero, ie no lattice phonons at all -- only lattice orbits.

However, I would think that macroscopic spinning would increase the effect as long as *the torsion fields were additive*. What does *additive* mean? I'm not sure. :-) Maybe it means that the rotation must be clockwise for both the macroscopic and the microscopic masses. (Or anticlockwise)

Either way, I think an external magnetic field is important. I am awaiting a copy of some work by Dr. Li in the mail which, as I recall, said that, contrary to the BCS theory, some of an externally applied magnetic field indeed *does* penetrate into the superconductor. This field would serve to align the ion orbit/rotational axes and maybe affect their precession.


Date: Thu, 11 Mar 1999 12:44:17 -0800
From: Robert Stirniman
Subject: Harvey Morgan's Experiment

Harvey Morgan's Experiment

While the physics establishment waits patiently for the results of the Stanford/NASA gravity probe B experiment to provide phsyical evidence of the gravitomagnetic field/spin field/torsion field, existing experimental evidence continues to be largely ignored.

A summary of identified existing experiments is presented in the references below. The list of experiments provided below is surely incomplete. Additional examples would be appreciated.

In January 1998, an unusually simple experiment was reported by Harvey Morgan (1).

Quoting from page 8 and 9 of his paper:

"A mechanical experiment confirmed that momentum is indeed a field phenomena. A 2 pound lead flywheel was mounted on the shaft of a small, very high speed (26,500 rpm advertised) electric motor. Another flywheel was mounted on a ball-bearing shaft aligned with the motor shaft.

The two flysheel's parallel faces were separated by about 1/16 inch. When the motor was energized, it accelerated the lead flywheel toward its top rated speed. The other flywheel, in response to the changing angular velocity and momentum of the lead flywheel, started turning briskly -- in the opposite direction! The changing momentum field of the lead flywheel induced a torque in the other flywheel across an airgap. Newtonian mechanics does not predict that reaction."

"When the electric motor was turned off before reaching top speed, the other flywheel stopped turning. It then started turning slowly in the same direction as the lead flywheel, urged by the collapsing momentum field and the air coupling between flywheels."

Regards, Robert Stirniman

References - Experimental Evidence of the Gravitomagnetic Field

1.) Harvey Morgan, "Now We Can Explore the Universe", IEEE AES Systems Magazine, January 1988, pp3-10. The angular momentum field, is demonstrated to couple across an air-gap between two flywheels, resulting in behaviour remarkably similar to magnetic induction.

2.) US Patent No 3626605, Method and Apparatus for Generating a Secondary Gravitational Force Field, Henry Wm Wallace, Ardmore PA, Dec 14, 1971. Wallace's first patent. The gravitomagnetic field is named the kinemassic field. The patent describes the embodiment of his experiment. An additional embodiment of the invention (Figures 7, 7A, and 7B) describes how a time varying gravitomagnetic field can be used to shield the primary background gravitoelectric field. Available on the web at First Wallace Patent

3.) US Patent No 3626606, Method and Apparatus for Generating a Dynamic Force Field, Henry Wm Wallace, Ardmore PA, Dec 14, 1971. Wallace's second patent provides a variation of his experiment. A type III-V semiconductor material (Indium Arsenide), of which both materials have unpaired nuclear spin, is used as an electronic detector for the gravitomagnetic field. The experiment demonstrates that the material in his gravitomagnetic field circuit has hysterisis and remanence effects analogous to magnetic materials. Available on the web at Second Wallace Patent

4.) US Patent No 3823570, Heat Pump, Henry Wm Wallace, 60 Oxford Drive, Freeport NY, July 16, 1974 Wallace’s third patent provides an additional variation of his experiment. Wallace demonstrates that by aligning the nuclear spin of materials having an odd number of nucleons, order is created in the material, resulting in a change in specific heat.

5.) International Journal of Theoretical Physics, K. Nordtvedt, Vol 27, p1395-1403. 1988. The gravitomagnetic field is indirectly detected by astronomical observations of the periastron precession rate of the binary pulsar PSR 1913+16.

6.) Test of the Lense-Thirring Orbital Shift Due to Spin, Ignazio Ciufolini, Federico Chieppa, David Lucchesi, and Francesco Vespe. Classical and Quantum Gravitation, Vol 14 p2710-2726. 1997. The gravitomagnetic field which results from the earth's rotation is experimentally detected and measured by laser tracking of the LAGEOS II satellite. The results agree with the Lense-Thirring derivation from General Relativity.

7.) A Possibility of Gravitational Force Shielding by Bulk YBa2Cu3O7-x Superconductor, E. Podkletnov and R. Nieminen, Physica C Vol. 203, p. 441, (1992). Podkletnov describes an experiment where a 2% reduction in weight is created in a mass suspended over a levitated and rotating super-conductor disk. A detailed compilation of information about this experiment is available on the web at Podkletnov

8.) Weak Gravitational Shielding Properties of Composite Bulk Yba2Cu3O7-x Superconductor Below 70K Under EM Field, Eugene Podkletnov, LANL Physics Preprint Server, Cond-Mat/9701074, January 1997. Podkletnov provides greater detail about his experimental apparatus and the construction of the superconductor disk. Available on the web at More Podkletnov

From: "Kedrick Brown"
Subject: Experimental detection of gravitomagnetism
Date: Fri, 12 Mar 1999 07:53:00 -0500

Hi Robert:

Your recent compilation of experimental detection of gravitomagnetism was excellent. I just wanted to add one more to the list. The Rossi X-Ray timing explorer (NASA) evidence (evidence of gravitomagnetism in disks of gas around a black hole). See: Rossi

On this page, Gravity Probe B is called a "second method for measuring frame dragging." So I think the existence of gravitomagnetism is already accepted, except that its generally believed to be an extremely tiny effect due to the virtually infinitesmal coupling constant. Many experiments that seem to prove otherwise (like Wallace's and other torsion field experiments) directly contradict this supposition, and so without extremely rigorous tests and retests of these anomalous effects, will probably remain generally unaccepted by the overall scientific community. Whereas tests that confirm the general relativistic view will of course not meet a lot of resistance in the same scientific community.


Date: Wed, 10 Mar 1999 00:22:56 -0800
From: Quinney
Subject: Re: Electricity-Gravity experiment

Kedrick Brown wrote:

Hi All:

Thanks to Colin Quinney for reminding me. Francis Niepher did a modified Cavendish experiment to detect the existence of gravitoelectric fields created by electric fields, published in Transactions of the Academy of Science of St. Louis, vol. 23, 1916 and 1917 If we could really eliminate from these experiments any possibility that EM fields skewed the results...well, I don't have to say how important a modern discovery of a direct electricity-gravity coupling would be. Anyone?


Colin Quinney wrote;

I've condensed the following from 'Homemade Lightning' by R.A. Ford, 2nd Ed., 1996:

Dr. Francis Nipher, Professor of physics, Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri. He performed a modified Cavendish experiment 1916-17, where he suspended with a 180 cm. silk thread, a 1" lead ball [test mass] within an iron box [Faraday cage]. The other mass was a 10" lead sphere, and it was electrified with an electrostatic generator. A wire connected the 10" ball to the Faraday box. (same potential.) The test mass was inside and fully insulated though, and, after 20 minutes, it deflected with an estimated repulsive force of 2 X the 'calculated' gravitational attractive force. Polarity made no difference.

Replacing the large mass with a hollow box had NO effect on the test mass, proving that this was an electrogravity interaction. Full details are published in Transactions of the Academy of Science of St. Louis, vol. 23, 1916 and 1917. An interesting effect to note was that a smaller but definite repulsion was noted when a small AC current was sent through the large lead ball instead of the high static charge.

Note the 20 minute duration before the full effects were felt by the test ball. I think that's important. There is an additive or an accumulation here. We see this reported often with electro-gravity type experiments. Even with Wallace.

Dr Niepher also did the test in 1917 with a Torsion Balance using two test balls and two 10" lead weights. He obtained the same results. Does anyone here have a Cavindish type balance?

There are other references to other electrogravity experiments of that period. One was in 'The Electrical Experimenter', March 1918, where an electrostatic generator of very high potential (est. 500 KV.) caused small 1 and 2 gram objects of various conductive or nonconductive materials to float. This is NOT normal electrostatic phenomena.


For Further Information:

The Gravity Society


Fontana Paper

First Wallace Patent



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